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What Is NXDOMAIN (Non-Existent Domain)?

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A NXDOMAIN is Non-Existent Domain. It is a term used for the Internet domain name that is unable to be resolved using the DNS servers or domain name not yet registered. NXDOMAIN can also take place due to the network or DNS server problem.

If domain name does not exists the resolving name server should return NXDOMAIN status. For example, ninjaaamango.com does not exists, so any query sent to my ISP resolving name server should return NXDOMAIN. The following example should work on UNIX / Linux and Mac OS X command line option:
host ninjaaamango.com
Sample Output:
Host ninjaaamango.com not found: 3(NXDOMAIN)

DNS hijacking and NXDOMAIN

DNS hijacking is the practice of hijacking the resolution of DNS names to IP addresses by the use of rogue DNS servers, particularly for the practice of phishing, or the practice of some ISPs resolving otherwise non-existent domains to the ISPs own servers. Many ISPs have implemented NXDomain redirection services that hijack DNS traffic to show you sponsored links (advertisements) and other related ads when you mistype a domain name. However NXDOMAIN based service causes many problems such as:
  1. Incompatible with most VPN software.
  2. Incompatible with most e-mail server that uses dns based anti-spam blakclists.
  3. Prevent the computer from resolving internal hostnames.
  4. Security problems such as Phishing and Pharming.
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Managing Active Directory from MMC

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Updated: January 21, 2005

Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

Managing Active Directory from MMC

The Active Directory administrative tools simplify directory service administration. You can use the standard tools or, using Microsoft Management Console (MMC), create custom tools that focus on single management tasks. You can combine several tools into one console. You can also assign custom tools to individual administrators with specific administrative responsibilities. For information about MMC, see Working with MMC console files.
The Active Directory administrative tools can only be used from a computer with access to a domain. The following Active Directory administrative tools are available on the Administrative Tools menu:
  • Active Directory Users and Computers
  • Active Directory Domains and Trusts
  • Active Directory Sites and Services
You can also remotely administer Active Directory from a computer that is not a domain controller, such as a computer running Windows XP Professional. To do this, you must install the Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools Pack. For more information, see Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools Pack Overview.
The Active Directory Schema snap-in is an Active Directory administrative tool for managing the schema. It is not available by default on the Administrative Tools menu, and must be added manually. For more information, see Install the Active Directory Schema snap-in.
For advanced administrators and network support specialists, there are many command-line tools that can be used to configure, manage, and troubleshoot Active Directory. For more information, see Active Directory support tools.
You can also create scripts that use Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI). Several sample scripts are supplied on the operating system installation media. For more information about the sample scripts, see Using the Windows Deployment and Resource Kits. For more information about using ADSI, see Programming interfaces.

Customizing how data is displayed in Active Directory administrative tools and snap-ins

The Active Directory administrative tools, such as Active Directory Users and Computers, and the Windows shell extensions use display specifiers to dynamically create context menu items and property pages. Display specifiers permit localization of class and attribute names, context menus, and property pages, and also support new classes and attributes. You can add and modify classes and attributes in the schema and extend both the administrative tools and the Windows shell in many ways by modifying attributes in display specifiers. For more information the Active Directory schema and display specifiers, see the Active Directory programmer's Guide at the Microsoft Web site.

Using Active Directory Users and Computers

You can change how directory objects are displayed in Active Directory Users and Computers by selecting commands on the View menu of the console. Menu commands include the ability to toggle features on and off, such as the console tree, description bar, status bar, large icons, small icons, and so on.
When you start Active Directory Users and Computers and expand the domain node, several containers are displayed in the console tree. If you have just created a domain controller, the containers that are displayed by default are:
  • Builtin: Contains objects that define the default built-in groups, such as Account Operators or Administrators.
  • Computers: Contains Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 computer objects, including computer accounts that were originally created using application programming interfaces (APIs) that could not use Active Directory. Computer objects are moved to the Computer container when Windows NT domains are upgraded to Windows 2000 or a Windows Server 2003 operating system.
  • Domain Controllers: Contains computer objects for domain controllers running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003.
  • Users: Contains user accounts and groups that were originally created using APIs that could not use Active Directory. User accounts and groups are moved to the Users container when Windows NT domains are upgraded to Windows 2000 or a Windows Server 2003 operating system. You can use the Windows NT 4.0 User Manager (Usrmgr) tool to modify users and groups created using the APIs that could not use Active Directory.
When you select Advanced Features on the View menu, two additional folders are displayed in the console:
  • LostAndFound: Contains objects whose containers were deleted at the same time that the object was created. If an object has been created in or moved to a location that is missing after replication, the lost object is added to the LostAndFound container. The LostAndFoundConfig container in the configuration directory partition serves the same purpose for forest-wide objects.
  • System: Contains built-in system settings for the various system service containers and objects. For more information about the System container, see Using the Windows Deployment and Resource Kits.
When you select Filter options on the View menu, you can show all objects, show only selected objects, configure the number of items that can be displayed for each folder, or create custom filters using object attributes and LDAP queries.

Starting Active Directory MMC consoles from the command-line

Active Directory MMC consoles, including Active Directory Users and Computers (dsa.msc), Active Directory Domains and Trusts (domain.msc) and Active Directory Sites and Services (dssite.msc), provide command-line options that allow you to start a console focused on a particular domain or domain controller. The command-line options support both fully qualified domain names and NetBIOS names.
The command-line options are:
  • /domain= FullyQualifiedDomainName
  • /domain= NetBIOSDomainName
  • /server= FullyQualifiedDomainControllerName
  • /server= NetBIOSDomainControllerName
You can use these command-line options to run the Active Directory MMC consoles directly from the command line, or you can create a shortcut to start a console and add the appropriate command-line options to the shortcut. You can also use the command-line options with any custom consoles that you create. For more information about creating and saving console files, see Windows interface administrative tool reference A-Z: Microsoft Management Console.
Command-line examples:
  • To start Active Directory Users and Computers focused on domain1, type:

    dsa.msc /domain=domain1
  • To start Active Directory Users and Computers focused on server1, type:

    dsa.msc /server=server1.domain1
  • To start Active Directory Sites and Services focused on server1, type:

    dssite.msc /server=server1.domain1
  • To start Active Directory Domains and Trusts focused on server1, type:

    domain.msc /server=server1.domain1
Notes
  • Do not use both a /domain and /server command-line option at the same time.
  • The /domain options can only be used with Active Directory Users and Computers.
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Essential Command-Line Tools for Managing Active Directory

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Windows Server 2008 R2 includes several tools that let you manage Active Directory from the command line. Here’s a look at the key tools and what they do.

Adprep Prepares a Windows forest or domain for installation of Windows domain controllers (DCs). To prepare a forest or a domain, use adprep /forestprep and adprep /domainprep, respectively. (Note that for Windows Server 2003 SP1 or later, a domain’s Group Policy isn’t automatically updated. To prepare Group Policy for the domain, you must use the command adprep /domainprep /gpprep. This modifies the access control entries (ACEs) for all Group Policy object (GPO) folders in the SYSVOL directory to grant read access to all enterprise domain controllers. This level of access is required to support RSoP for site-based policy. Because this security change causes the NT File Replication Service (NTFRS) to resend all GPOs to all domain controllers, you should use adprep /domainprep /gpprep only after careful planning.)

Dsadd Adds computers, contacts, groups, organizational units, and users to Active Directory. Typedsadd objectname /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command, such as dsadd computer /?.

Dsget Displays properties of computers, contacts, groups, organizational units, users, sites, subnets, and servers registered in Active Directory. Type dsget objectname /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command, such as dsget subnet /?.

Dsmod Modifies properties of computers, contacts, groups, organizational units, users, and servers that exist in Active Directory. Type dsmod objectname /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command, such as dsmod server /?.

Dsmove Moves a single object to a new location within a single domain or renames the object without moving it. Type dsmove /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command.

Dsquery Uses search criteria to find computers, contacts, groups, organizational units, users, sites, subnets, and servers in Active Directory. Type dsquery /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command.

Dsrm Removes objects from Active Directory. Type dsrm /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command.

Ntdsutil Allows the user to view site, domain, and server information; manage operations masters; and perform database maintenance of Active Directory. Type ntdsutil /? at a command prompt to display help information about using the command. 
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How to Open Active Directory Users and Computers

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Active Directory Users and Computers is an MMC snap-in that is a standard feature of Microsoft Windows Server operating systems. However, when you install Exchange 2003, the setup wizard automatically extends the functionality of Active Directory Users and Computers to include Exchange-specific tasks. Active Directory Users and Computers is used to manage recipients. This procedure outlines how to open Active Directory Users and Computers.
If the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in is installed on a computer that does not have Exchange or the Exchange management tools installed, you cannot perform Exchange tasks from that computer. You start Active Directory Users and Computers from either an Exchange server or from a workstation that has the Exchange System Management Tools installed.
  1. Click Start, and then click Run.
  2. In the Open box, type dsa.msc, and then click OK.
—or—
  • Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Microsoft Exchange, and then click Active Directory Users and Computers.
The following figure shows how Active Directory Users and Computers appears on the screen.
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Run Command Shortcuts for Administrative Tools

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I’m always looking for ways to make my job easier.  Knowing shortcuts to the commonly used admin tools that you use is one of the best ways.  Take a look below for your favorites and remember them…

Not only will it save you a ton of time but also make you look more intelligent!!!
Console
Command


AD Domains and Trusts
domain.msc
Active Directory Management
admgmt.msc
AD Sites and Services
dssite.msc
AD Users and Computers
dsa.msc
ADSI Edit
adsiedit.msc
Authorization manager
azman.msc
Certification Authority Management
certsrv.msc
Certificate Templates
certtmpl.msc
Cluster Administrator
cluadmin.exe
Computer Management
compmgmt.msc
Component Services
comexp.msc
Configure Your Server
cys.exe
Device Manager
devmgmt.msc
DHCP Management
dhcpmgmt.msc
Disk Defragmenter
dfrg.msc
Disk Manager
diskmgmt.msc
Distributed File System
dfsgui.msc
DNS Management
dnsmgmt.msc
Event Viewer
eventvwr.msc
Indexing Service Management
ciadv.msc
IP Address Manage
ipaddrmgmt.msc
Licensing Manager
llsmgr.exe
Local Certificates Management
certmgr.msc
Local Group Policy Editor
gpedit.msc
Local Security Settings Manager
secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups Manager
lusrmgr.msc
Network Load balancing
nlbmgr.exe
Performance Monitor
perfmon.msc
PKI Viewer
pkiview.msc
Public Key Management
pkmgmt.msc
QoS Control Management
acssnap.msc
Remote Desktops
tsmmc.msc
Remote Storage Administration
rsadmin.msc
Removable Storage
ntmsmgr.msc
Removable Storage Operator Requests
ntmsoprq.msc
Routing and Remote Access Manager
rrasmgmt.msc
Resultant Set of Policy
rsop.msc
Schema management
schmmgmt.msc
Services Management
services.msc
Shared Folders
fsmgmt.msc
SID Security Migration
sidwalk.msc
Telephony Management
tapimgmt.msc
Terminal Server Configuration
tscc.msc
Terminal Server Licensing
licmgr.exe
Terminal Server Manager
tsadmin.exe
UDDI Services Management
uddi.msc
Windows Management Instrumentation
wmimgmt.msc
WINS Server manager
winsmgmt.msc
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The most usefull active directory MMC run commands

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  • This is a list of the most common active directory mmc console run commnad that is really usefull in my opinion :
    CERTMGR.MSC
    Certificates snap-in
    CERTSRV.MSC
    Certification Services
    CMD.EXE
    Command Prompt
    COMPMGMT.MSC
    Computer Management
    DCPOL.MSC
    Domain Controller Security Policy
    DEVMGMT.MSC
    Device Manager
    DFRG.MSC
    Disk Defragmenter
    DFSGUI.MSC
    Distributed File System
    DHCPMGMT.MSC
    DHCP Manager
    DISKMGMT.MSC
    Disk Management
    DNSMGMT.MSC
    DNS Manager
    DOMAIN.MSC
    Active Directory Domains & Trust
    DOMPOL.MSC
    Domain Security Policy
    DSA.MSC
    Active Directory Users & Computers
    DSA.MSC /DOMAIN=domainname
     
    DSA.MSC /SERVER=servername
     
    DSSITE.MSC
    Active Directory Sites & Services
    EVENTVWR.MSC
    Event Viewer
    FSMGMT.MSC
    Shared Folders
    GPEDIT.MSC
    local Group Policy Editor
    IAS.MSC
    Internet Authentication Service
    INETMGR
    Internet Information Service (\Windows\system32\inetsrv)
    LUSRMGR.MSC
    Local Users and Groups
    MMC.EXE
    Microsoft Management Console
    MSINFO32.EXE
    Hardware and software configuration information
    PERFMON.MSC
    Performance Monitor
    REGEDIT.EXE
    Run Registry Editor
    RRASMGMT.MSC
    Routing and Remote Access
    RSOP.MSC
    Resultant Set of Policy
    SECPOL.MSC
    Local Security Policy
    SERVICES.MSC
    Service Configuration
    TSCC.MSC
    Terminal Services
    MSTSC
    Remote Desktop



    Network is my LOVE
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